Racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19

Preliminary data from California on COVID-19 cases and deaths through May 20, 2020 suggest racial/ethnic disparities in adults diagnosed and dying from the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV2. While there were substantial amounts of missing data (30% of cases and 2% of deaths were missing information on race/ethnicity) and data are dependent on testing to identify cases, two patterns have emerged. First, adults of Latino and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander race/ethnicity are disproportionately more likely to be infected with SARS-CoV2 relative to the proportion of the California population that they make up.  Adults of African-American/Black race/ethnicity made up a greater proportion of deaths from COVID-19 relative to their proportion of the California population. The demographic data do not tell us why these patterns may exist but some hypotheses have been put forth. Cases, which indicate infection with COVID-19, may be associated with socioeconomic factors, such as, employment in essential occupations, being less able to work from home or less able or compliant with social distancing. Deaths, which indicate more severe disease once infected, may be reflective of less access to health services, more prevalent comorbidities, or vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D is essential to immune function). More research is needed to examine these potential racial/ethnic disparities.

The earliest images of coronaviruses

Ever wonder how scientists were first able to get a glimpse at coronaviruses? In 1964, a female virologist named June Almeida with an acumen for viral imaging using the electron microscope visualized coronaviruses for the first time. A recent National Geographic magazine article describes her microscopy techniques which allowed researchers at the time to discern one virus from another as well as to identify viruses that were previously unseen. And as it turns out, researchers today are still using her techniques to accurately identify viruses.